Genesis, for example, goes into elaborate details regarding the many functional features in real neurons, and takes into account almost all of the parameters that a biologist would care to feed into. However, it seems to lack the (somewhat essential, i would argue) feature of neuronal plasticity. This is probably because there is still considerable mystery shrouding the concept, and (to put it mildly all is not yet clear in that realm. A note for the future several things are clear. The long-term goal is to explain all of learning and memory, but that is still a distant dream. In the shorter-term, some of the processes taking place in the brain have begun to be investigated, but much more needs to be done. It is a well-established fact that dynamic analysis of biochemical pathways has several advantages. Primarily, it allows simulation models to be created from such data, which can not only be used to test hypotheses themselves, but also homework result in a general improvement in the response of neural networks in which such models might be incorporated.
Interstingly, second messengers may also be playing a role in changing threshold. To consider an example, slow excitatory synaptic potentials may summate with conventional fast excitatory synaptic potentials to cause a previously subthreshold input to trigger an action potential. According to this scheme, the duration of the slow synaptic potential would correspond to the duration of the memory. Moreover, increased camp levels in cells seem to provide a biochemical mechanism for encoding information about the temporal association of separate inputs to these cells. This information be provided by interests the proximate and sequential interaction of ca ions and Serotonin (5-HT) - or related neuromodulators - with the adenylate cyclase complex (that converts atp to cAMP). Evidence for such interaction comes from various studies, such as those by Ocorr. 12 and Eliot. Recently, there have been (in my opinion, laudable) attempts at modeling neurons, such as the genesis simulation system2. It is most gratifying to see that engineers seem to be waking up to biology.
Eric Kandel proposed the use of Aplysia as a model system, which has since gained widespread popularity. Several behavioral patterns in Aplysia have been examined (such as the defensive siphon and tail withdrawal reflexes, the inking response, and the like). Several forms of learning have now been identified in this species, and most of these have begun to be investigated. 4 provide a good review of the role of second messengers in various forms of learning in Aplysia, and in 3 they present a comprehensive examination of the issues involved in associative learning. It is fast emerging that second messengers - like cyclic amp - play a key role in neuronal plasticity, and hence in learning and memory. To figure out the exact nature of such mechanisms, and their contributions to higher cognitive processes, such as consciousness, is a task for the future. However, in the short term, it is very possible to elucidate the relationships that exist in the metabolic pathways with(in) which second messengers interact. Such is the aim of our current research.
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Each of these neurons is simply a sigmoidal summer, whose state changes when the sum of the inputs to it exceeds a certain threshold. Simple as they are, such networks can be taught to model complex systems fairly accurately. As a result, anns find wide-ranging applications, from agriculture to astrology. The role of changing threshold writing Non-linear properties, such as threshold, play a key role in the information processing of biological neural networks. However, the m-p model has been used in most anns, in which only the time-invariant threshold property is considered. It has been demonstrated that a dynamic threshold in the model of a neuron used in an ann improves its performance 6, 8,.
Various models (for dynamic threshold) have been proposed in the past 6,8,18, but it has never been made clear how the threshold variance was formulated, or how it is related to threshold variance in real (biological) neurons. It is especially interesting that several different kinds of learning seem to have their roots in changing thresholds. For example, a simple neurobiological model for associative learning based on a temporally specific threshold (in the involved neurons) has been proposed. The same article also looks at simulations of simple higher-order features of classical conditioning as well as operant conditioning. The cellular basis of memory many researchers have looked at the cellular basis of memory.
And then there are others. Roger Penrose13 presents arguments for why ai (as it is currently being studied) can never work, and then in 14 goes ahead and proposes his own schema for how 'learning' really happens. This schema, where the microtubules in the axons are shown to be the real carriers of memory, has been widely discussed (mostly with careful scepticism so i won't go into it here. For some competent reviews of the psychological implications of his claim -that problems in quantum physics are linked to problems in consciousness-the reader is referred to Psyche. Then, there are several very accomplished scientists who don't argue at this (relatively grandiose) level, but are content doing their bit for the cause of science.
Perhaps it is needless to argue at that level. Perhaps the 'lets just investigate and see what happens' approach is the best way out. After all, any research on the brain does tell us something' new. Of course, whether or not that something' helped us in getting a better understanding of 'learning or 'consciousness or anything like that, is debatable. From biological to Artificial neural Networks Artificial neural networks (ANNs) came into existence after the first mathematical neuron model (the m-p model) was proposed and applied to construct neural nets based on simple logic calculus in 1943 11, and have played a very important role. Basically, such a network is a directed graph with a neuron at each node.
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What is really interesting review about research on the brain (on any facet of learning is that it is driven by many directions. To start with, there is the force of science itself, which is the desire to know how we learn, for its own sake, not that there is anything "special" about the brain. Then, there are those who like to believe that the brain is "special in some way, and it's more important to know how it works. And then, there's people from ai, and others like them, who believe that the brain is really "special and it needs to be studied before all else. They're all keen to impart these princliples of intelligence to machines, and other such devices, envisioning robots that actually understand what you meant when you said "Oh! That's a beautiful rainbow!" With so many different pulls, the field is bound to be interesting, and indeed. At one end of the spectrum are people like john searle 15, who suffer from the conviction that the whole process of higher level cognition (and ultimately 'consciousness is so "special" that it will defy any attempt to study good it, and is, therefore, useless. To be fair to them, however, they do think that the biology of the brain can be studied: they just believe that consciousness and higher level cognition, though a direct result of the biology, cannot be understood by understanding the biology. At the other end of the spectrum are people like douglas Hofstadter 7 - whom searle calls 'Strong ai people' - who believe that higher level cognition can, indeed, be studied, even if only as a separate process from the biology of the brain.
All in all, i am particularly thrilled to be part of the field. The field How the brain codes, stores, and retrieves memories is, of course, among the most important and baffling questions in science. It is believed that the uniqueness of each human being is due largely to the memory store - the biological residue of memory from a lifetime of experience. The cellular basis business of this ability to learn can be traced to simple organisms. In recent times, understanding of the biological basis of learning and memory has undergone a revolution. It is clear that various forms and aspects of learning and memory involve particular systems, networks, and circuits in the brain, and it now appears possible to identify these circuits, localize the sites of memory storage, and analyze the cellular and molecular mechanisms of memory. So much, well said. Now lets come to some brass tacks.
involved, i found myself swamped by a sea of information, looking blankly at words that meant nothing (to me but sounded really serious and meaningful (I hold the same view for latin, greek, and various. However, six months of courses and lots of literature review always does oodles of good to anyone, and it has had its beneficial effects on me too. I am now fairly conversant with what goes on, and can actually say "Membrane depolarisation and Calcium induce c-fos transcription via phosphorylation of transcription factor creb" without batting an eyelid, and actually understand what it means. Some of my old friends (who still move in computer-related networks) are impressed when I do that. Some others believe that I have gone bonkers, studying biology in this, the age of the information revolution, instead of computers. I like to tell them what I sincerely believe in myself: There is no machine greater than the brain, and there is no research greater than to study. Morover, computer science (and all of science, for that matter) has a lot to learn from biology (which is one of the many discoveries i've made in the past six months). And with the fast advance of computers and their strong foray into ai, it is becoming even more necessary to elaborate the kinds of processes that learning (and eventually, intelligence) entails.
And then it all changed. I had worked with just about every aspect of computer science that review I could get my hands on, including image processing, algorithms, graph theory and the like (my resum eacute has more details). I had also explored the fields robotics and ai (I worked with a company in New Delhi, india - once again, see my resum eacute for more details) and had really enjoyed. Among other things, we often discussed concepts of intelligence in machines, but it made more sense to me to first find out about how real intelligence happened. However, biology was completely a different realm, and no one touched it with a bargepole. But when I heard a great talk on the immense opportunities that lay in the study of the mind, that changed it all, and I started seriously thinking about. When I came to uga to pursue graduate study, i finally made the decision. I would study the biological basis of learning, memory, and (hence) intelligence.
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Connecting content to people. Company, resources, plans products, apps. Naveen Agnihotri's Research, i wrote this essay in november 1994. It describes (as the name doesn't indicate) the various facets of learning, memory and intelligence, particularly as they relate to my research, and my journey across various fields revolving around them. First of all, a improve journey. Not so long ago, i used to be a computer science person, proud of what my rapidly expanding field had achieved in a relatively short lifetime. All in all, i was happy with life, looking at a career in some computer-related industry.