The red sea connected people on both coasts and produced a single cultural unit that included Ethiopia and Yemen, which over time diverged into different cultures. It is only in Ethiopia that proto-Ethiopian script developed and survives today in ge'ez, tigrean, and Amharic. In the first century. E., the ancient city of Axum became a political, economic, and cultural center in the region. The Axumites dominated the red sea trade by the third century. By the fourth century they were one of only four nations in the world, along with Rome, persia, and the kushan Kingdom in northern India, to issue gold coinage. In 333, Emperor 'ēzānā and his court adopted Christianity; this was the same year the roman Emperor Constantine converted. The Axumites and the romans became economic partners who controlled the red sea and Mediterranean sea trades, save respectively. Axum flourished through the sixth century, when Emperor Caleb conquered much of the Arabian peninsula.
Proto-Ethiopian script inlaid on stone tablets has been found in the highlands, notably in the town of Yeha. The origin of this civilization is a point of contention. The traditional theory states that immigrants from the Arabian peninsula settled in northern Ethiopia, bringing with them their language, proto-Ethiopian (or Sabean which has also been discovered on the eastern side of the red sea. This theory of the origin of Ethiopian civilization is being challenged. A will new theory states that both sides of the red sea were a single cultural unit and that the rise of civilization in the Ethiopian highlands was not a product of diffusion and colonization from southern Arabia but a cultural exchange in which the people. During this time period, waterways such as the red sea were virtual highways, resulting. The castle of the Emperor of Fastilida in Gondar. In cultural and economic exchange.
History and Ethnic Relations, emergence of the nation. Ethiopia was home to some of the earliest hominid populations and possibly the region where. Homo erectus evolved and expanded out of Africa to populate eurasia.8 million years ago. The most notable paleoanthropological find in the country was "Lucy a female. Australopithicus afarensis discovered in 1974 and referred. Dinqnesh you are marvelous by Ethiopians. The rise of sizable populations with a writing system dates back to at least 800.
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The cross symbolizes the strength and reliance of the monarchy on the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the dominant religion for the last sixteen hundred years. Today, twenty-five years after the last emperor was dethroned, the flag consists of the traditional green, gold, and red horizontal stripes with a five-pointed star and rays emitting from its points in the foreground over a light blue circular background. The star represents the unity and equity of the various ethnic groups, a symbol of a federalist government based on ethnic states. Sovereignty and freedom are characteristics and thus symbols of Ethiopia both internally and externally. Many African nation-states, such as Ghana, benin, senegal, cameroon, and the congo adopted Ethiopia's colors for their flags when they gained independence from colonial english rule. Some Africans in the diaspora established a religious and political tradition deemed Ethiopianism. Proponents of this movement, which predates pan-Africanism, appropriated the symbol of Ethiopia to liberate themselves from oppression.
Ethiopia was an independent, black nation with an ancient Christian Church that was not a colonial biproduct. Marcus Garvey spoke of viewing God through the spectacles of Ethiopia and often"d Psalm 68:31, "Ethiopia shall stretch her hands unto god." From Garvey's teachings, the rastafarian movement emerged in Jamaica in the 1930s. The name "Rastafari" is laura derived from Emperor haile selassie, whose precoronation name was Ras Tafari makonnen. "Ras" is both a princely and a military title meaning "head" in Amharic. There is a population of Rastafarians living in the town of Shashamane, which was part of a land grant given to the Ethiopian World Federation by Emperor haile selassie in return for support during the Italian occupation during World War.
The nilo-saharan super language family accounts for about 2 percent of the population, and these languages are spoken near the sudanese border. Amharic has been the dominant and official language for the last 150 years as a result of the political power of the Amhara ethnic group. The spread of Amharic has been strongly linked to Ethiopian nationalism. Today, many Oromo write their language, oromoic, using the roman alphabet as a political protest against their history of domination by the Amhara, who account for significantly less of the population. English is the most widely spoken foreign language and the language in which secondary school and university classes are taught. French is heard occasionally in parts of the country near Djibouti, formerly French Somaliland.
Italian can be heard on occasion, particularly among the elderly in the tigre region. Remnants of the Italian occupation during World War ii exist in the capital, such as the use of ciao to say "good-bye. The monarchy, known as the solomonic dynasty, has been a prominent national symbol. The imperial flag consists of horizontal stripes of green, gold, and red with a lion in the foreground holding a staff. On the head of the staff is an Ethiopian Orthodox cross with the imperial flag waving from. The lion is the lion of Judah, one of the many imperial titles signifying descent from King Solomon.
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The urban population is estimated twist to be 11 percent of the total population. The rural lowland population is composed of many nomadic and seminomadic peoples. The nomadic peoples seasonally graze livestock, while the seminomadic peoples are subsistence farmers. The rural highlands economy is based on wallpaper agriculture and livestock raising. There are eighty-six known indigenous languages in Ethiopia: eighty-two spoken and four extinct. The vast majority of the languages spoken in the country can be classified within three families of the Afro-Asiatic super language family: the semitic, cushitic, and Omotic. Semitic-language speakers predominantly live in the highlands in the center and north. Cushitic-language speakers live in the highlands and lowlands of the south-central region as well as in the north-central area. Omotic speakers live predominantly in the south.
Ethiopia, the bulk of the rain in proposal the highlands falls in the major rainy season from mid-June to mid-September, with an average of forty inches of rain during that season. A minor rainy season occurs from February to April. The northeastern provinces of Tigre and Welo are prone to drought, which tends to occur about once every ten years. The remainder of the year is generally dry. In the year 2000, the population was approximately 61 million, with over eighty different ethnic groups. The Oromo, amhara, and Tigreans account for more than 75 percent of the population, or 35 percent, 30 percent, and 10 percent respectively. Smaller ethnic groups include the somali, gurage, afar, Awi, welamo, sidamo, and Beja.
three sides by desert with a significantly lower elevation. The plateau is between six thousand and ten thousand feet above sea level, with the highest peak being Ras Deshan, the fourth-tallest mountain in Africa. Addis Ababa is the third-highest capital city in the world. The Great Rift Valley (known for discoveries of early hominids such as Lucy, whose bones reside in the Ethiopian National Museum) bisects the central plateau. The valley extends southwest through the country and includes the danakil Depression, a desert containing the lowest dry point on the earth. In the highlands is lake tana, the source of the Blue nile, which supplies the great majority of water to the nile river Valley in Egypt. Variation in altitude results in dramatic climatic variation. Some peaks in the simyen mountains receive periodic snowfall, while the average temperature of the danakil is 120 degrees Fahrenheit in the day time. The high central plateau is mild, with a mean average temperature of 62 degrees Fahrenheit.
In addition to the monarchy, whose imperial line can be traced to king Solomon and the queen of resume Sheba, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church was a major force in that, in combination with the political system, it fostered nationalism with its geographic center in the highlands. The combination of church and state was an indissoluble alliance that controlled the nation from King 'ēzānā's adoption of Christianity in 333 until the overthrow of haile selassie in 1974. A socialist government (the derge) known for its brutality governed the nation until 1991. The Ethiopian people's revolutionary democratic Front (eprdf) defeated the derge, established democratic rule, and currently governs Ethiopia. The last twenty-five years of the twentieth century have been a time of revolt and political unrest but represent only a small portion of the time during which Ethiopia has been a politically active entity. Unfortunately, however, the country's international standing has declined since the reign of Emperor Selassie, when it was the only African member of the league of Nations and its capital, Addis Ababa, was home to a substantial international community. War, drought, and health problems have left the nation one of the poorest African countries economically, but the people's fierce independence and historical pride account for a people rich in self-determination. Ethiopia is the tenth largest country in Africa, covering 439,580 square miles (1,138,512 square kilometers) and is the major constituent of the landmass known as the horn of Africa.
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The name "Ethiopia" derives from the Greek ethio, meaning "burned" and pia, meaning "face the land of burned-faced peoples. Aeschylus described Ethiopia as a "land far off, a nation of black men." Homer depicted Ethiopians as pious and favored by the gods. These conceptions of Ethiopia were geographically vague. In the late nineteenth century, emperor Menelik ii expanded the country's borders to their present configuration. In March 1896, Italian troops attempted to enter Ethiopia forcibly and were routed by Emperor Menelik and his army. The battle of Adwa was the only victory of an African army over a european army during the partitioning of Africa which preserved the country's independence. Ethiopia is writing the only African country never to have been colonized, although an Italian occupation occurred from 1936 to 1941.